|Wildlife in India
Since ancient era, jungles have been a refuge for a large number of animal and plant species. One of the negative impacts of mechanization was deforestation. Deforestation made many wonderful species of plants and animals endangered. Government of India has opened many wildlife sanctuaries and National parks to save these species from extinction.
Today there are 92 existing National Parks in India covering an area of 38,569.66 kilometers (1.17 % of geographical area of the country), 492 existing wildlife sanctuaries in India covering an area of 117,077.41 kilometers (3.56% of the geographical area of the country), thirteen existing biosphere reserves and tiger reserves starting from nine have grown up to twenty-seven.
Latest researches on wild life have led to rediscovery of new species of mammals like the Leaf Deer in Arunachal Pradesh or the Hook Nosed Frog in Western Ghats. India supports more than 14 percent of wild fauna and even a little higher percent of wild flora of the world.
For efficient administration, India is divided into five regions. These are Trans-Himalaya (refers to the region beyond Himalaya), The Himalaya, The Indian Desert, The Semi-Arid Zone and the Western Ghats.
Covering an area of about 186,200 square kilometers, Trans-Himalaya region houses rare species of Black Necked Crane breed in the brackish lakes like Tso Morari, Hanle and Chushul, the lynx sub-species of wild sheep including the nayan or great Tibetan sheep (Ovis ammon hodgsoni), Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) or the chiru, the Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) pikas, marmots, Tibetan hares snow-leopard or ounce Pallas cat, Indian wolf, the urial or shapu (Ovis orientalis), the bharal or blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and the ibex (Capra ibex).
Spreading over an area of 236,300 square meters, Himalayas (also known as young fold mountains) with its panoramic view provide refuge to red panda, binturong and several lesser cats, ibex, shapu, wolf and snow leopard. The vegetation of this region consists of junipers, rhododendrons, dwarf bamboo birch, open meadows and scrub-dotted grasslands.
The Indian Desert spreads through Gujarat and Rajasthan. Because of scarcity of water, plant and animal species have adapted themselves and require little water for their survival. This region covers an area of about 225,000 kilometers. The Thar Desert region provides refuge to desert fox, the winter-visiting houbara bustard, several sand grouse species, few reptiles, Blackbuck, chinkara, the Indian wolf, caracal and great Indian bustard whereas Rann has huge colony of flamingoes, wild ass, houbara bustards, sand grouse and other avifauna.
The Semi Arid Zone exists Between the Indian desert and the Gangetic Plain. This region is a dwelling place of the king of Jungle ' Asiatic Lion', Leopard, Tiger and variety of predators including the wolf, caracal and the jackal. The plants found in this region are genus Acacia, Anogeissus, Grewia, Balanites and Capparis.
The Western Ghats are rich in the production of cash crops and spices (namely coffee, cocoa, cardamom, rubber, tea and pepper). The animals found in this region are tiger, sloth bear, gaur, elephant, panther and several species of deer.
Here is a list of various Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks: